The Andean region of South America was the site of many high civilizations centering in what is now Peru and Bolivia. The dominant civilization at the time of first European contact was the Inca civilization. Today, the people of the Andes consist mainly of Quechua speakers and Aymara speakers, descendants of ancient Andean kingdoms.
At its peak, the Inca Empire covered much of the South American Highlands, and included a sophisticated system of highways and runners that could deliver messages over distances of more than a thousand miles in a matter of days. Like the Mayan civilization, the Inca civilization was agriculturally based, ruled by a god-king.
Textiles were also of great importance in Andean civilizations. They were a form of wealth, and designated status. Ceremonial uses of cloth gave it spiritual significance as well. The making of cloth was a state concern, and the best weavers from among the young girls of the land were brought to the capital to weave in royal workshops. Early examples of textiles were found at burial sites on the western coastal deserts. These burials involved the dressing and wrapping of the body in elaborate textiles. The woven textiles of the Andes are among the most complex weavings in the world, and yet the loom used is among the simplest.
Today the Quechua and Aymara peoples of the Andes continue to weave. Although many are forsaking old ways, the traditions survive in some regions. Cloth remains at the center of the spiritual life of the community; special bundles of cloth are kept and revered as embodiments of their ancestors. Some of these cloths may be centuries old. On certain occasions the cloths are taken out from their storage, and displayed during festivals, or carried around the bounds of the village lands, as if taking the ancestors for an outing. The details of pattern, color, structure, and even the twist of the thread carries symbolic meaning that identifies the locality, the function, the gender and status of the user.
In recent years, Andean cloth, both pre-Columbian and more recent, has been the object of collectors. As the supply of old textiles in the markets has been depleted, sacred cloth bundles have been sold or stolen from their home villages, to the consternation of community members, for whom these are embodiments of ancestors. At the same time, foreign interest in these textiles has also engendered a renewed interest in weaving. This has occasionally led to the reintroduction of weaving in places where the traditions had been abandoned.